Introduction

The story of a Polish ambulance unit stationed in the historic burgh of Linlithgow, birthplace of Mary Queen of Scots, is not one of front line battle, nor of heroic exploits. Indeed much of Britain’s wartime sacrifice was the battle of the home front. The simple and un-recounted business of doing ones “bit”. This story is one of demonstrating the synergy of the allied nations. One of the routine sacrifices those people made so that we today, may live in the freedom they paid for. The story is of Polish soldiers, British women volunteers and of American patriotic aid. This came together in Linlithgow during the Second World War.

1: 1st MAC

1 MAC, (1 Motorowy Ambulans Konwoj), was initially formed as a small unit of around 40 personnel in the town of Newburgh, Fife, as part of the Polish 1st Corps (1 Korpusu Polskiego) of the Polish Army in exile, which was tasked with the defence of the Scottish east coast, during the early years of the second world war following the fall of France and the Dunkirk evacuation.

The unit comprised British uniformed Polish soldiers, exiled from their homeland by German occupation in 1939, and British women ambulance drivers from the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry, F.A.N.Y. These were unique circumstances, a uniformed British women’s service operating within the army of a foreign power. But these were testing times. Britain was then under threat of invasion.

By the time the Poles had formed into an effective force, the immediate threat had receded and 1Mac’s compliment was increased and transferred to Linlithgow sometime around 1942 and was assigned barracks in Lataere, Linlithgow, a newly completed youth centre (demolished 2007) in the grounds of St Michael’s RC Church, with their mission to serve ambulance requirements of the Polish army which had by then moved south of the River Forth to form the Polish 1st Armoured Division. The ambulance unit could also serve evacuating anticipated blitz casualties from Edinburgh, the Forth Bridge and the naval ports of Rosyth and Leith, to the nearby war hospital at Bangour, a threat that thankfully never materialised.


Ambulance convoy, verified as 1st MAC
Ambulance convoy, verified as 1st MAC
at the same spot 65 years later, being Jamesfield Newburgh
at the same spot 65 years later, being Jamesfield Newburgh

Following the huge loss of vehicles and material at Dunkirk in 1940, the British Army was in no condition to also equip their Polish allies, so help was sought from the U.S.A and Canada. 1MAC were issued with 1½ ton Chevrolet field ambulance panel trucks which accommodated a crew of 2, a capacity of ten wounded or four stretcher cases, and were donated by the American committee for the polish ambulance fund, and the British American Ambulance Corps, a body created to provide U.S. gift aid vehicles permitted by the U.S. constitution only on humanitarian grounds, by the then neutral U.S.A. The term convoy is not a regular description for a military body and remains something of a mystery. Perhaps it was used due to it comprising a mixed body of differing gender and nationality.

ambulance and stretcher bearers, verified as 1st MAC
ambulance and stretcher bearers, verified as 1st MAC
Polish poster
Polish Poster

2: THE FIRST AID NURSING YEOMANRY, F.A.N.Y.

One of the outstanding pieces of work done by F.A.N.Y. was their service with the Polish forces. It was unique. Nowhere can history point to a uniformed women’s service working under such circumstances, with, and for, the army of a foreign power. Not only did FANY act as the A.T.S. of the army they served, but they worked with the Poles through a vital period of their national effort, and so cherished a gallant nation in its darkest hour.

In 1938, the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry was absorbed into the A.T.S. but retained its identity and distinctive uniform differences of sam browne belt and collar insignia for all ranks.

Many FANY went on to serve with distinction in covert operations with the SOE, Special Operations Executive, with heroines such as Ensign Violette Szabo, (made famous in the film carve her name with pride), Lt Odette Sansom and Assistant Section Officer Noor Inayat-Khan, amongst many others, to whom we owe a great debt. Free FANY'S were volunteers who served without pay.

A veteran Free FANY, Norah Grajnert was interviewed in 2008. When war broke out, Norah was 19 and already a good driver. She decided to volunteer to drive a mobile canteen serving refreshments to rescue workers in Bristol during the Blitz. But then she wanted to do more, so she decided to ‘do her bit’ by joining the FANY. At her interview, the FANY’s Commandant realised that Norah spoke excellent French, as did many of the thousands of Polish soldiers who’d been evacuated from France after escaping from Poland. They were encamped at special bases in Scotland, and Norah was asked to join the large FANY unit which had been specially formed for the Poles’ welfare. She was billited in Easter Moncrief and recalls the small rooms they were assigned. Norah described the uniform as regulation issue ATS uniform, but with plain brass buttons, which distinguished the Free FANY from the regular FANY. Also they wore the POLAND shoulder titles and polish eagle on the breast pocket as a tribute to the unit to which they were attached. Indeed Norah recalls they were often mistaken for Poles and sited a humouros occasion with a soldier on a train who saw her POLAND titles and struck up a long conversation in Serbo Croat with her. Well they made each other understood until his friend joined them and the two spoke English. Turned out they were both American soldiers and mistook Norah for Polish!

taken outside Linlithgow town hall Jan 1943
taken outside Linlithgow town hall Jan 1943
(click image for larger version)
town hall 2008
town hall 2008

The personnel served in a voluntary capacity, providing their own uniform, claiming no disability allowance or pension, and paying for their own training. It was not until 1942 that the war office reluctantly approved the request of the Polish authorities to pay a modest remuneration. Thenceforth each received eleven shillings and ninepence (about 60p) per week, plus rations and accommodation in military premises. After her release from the A.T.S, Auxiliary Territorial Service, Staff commander Hope Gamwell was sent from F.A.N.Y. H.Q. to command the corps unit attached to the polish forces.

FANY drivers with Dr. Jan Kaminski of the Polish general hospital
FANY drivers with Dr. Jan Kaminski of the Polish general hospital
Polish soldiers at a mobile canteen
Polish soldiers at a mobile canteen
Ambulance maintenance was undertaken by F.A.N.Y.
Ambulance maintenance was undertaken by F.A.N.Y.

When France was overrun, FANY abandoned their canteen in france and fled with the Poles to set up a camp in south west Scotland.The British American Ambulance Corps provided them with ten ambulances and subsequently the Poles were moved to the east coast of Scotland. Ambulance and staff car drivers were sought and the drivers were billited in Easter Moncrief to support the Head Quarters staff in the ajacent Earl of Moncrief’s House, Bridge of Earn, Perth.

Easter Moncrief 2008
Easter Moncrief 2008
Moncrief house 2008
Moncrief house 2008
The vehicle insignia of 1st Corps
The vehicle insignia of 1st Corps

The 1ST Mac ambulance convoy was stationed in Newburgh, North Fife,10 miles away. In due course F.A.N.Y admintration was transferred from London to Balthayock, Perth then eventually to Dalkeith Road, Edinburgh,when it was decided to form the 1st armoured div, and there was a general realignment of polish forces south of the River Forth. The Polish H.Q. moved to Kinnaird House Falkirk, No4 Liasion mission to Edinburgh and the 1st Motor ambulance to Linlithgow in 1942.

That dream became reality and the 1st Armoured Division, “the black devils”, was formed and contributed to the annihilation of the German army in Normandy, on the road to Berlin.

3: THE BRITISH AMERICAN AMBULANCE CORPS

The ambulances were essentially civilian specification trucks commercially available in the Unites States, adapted for military use and paid for by public donations to defend European democracy and liberty, a cause championed by Mrs Franklin D. Roosevelt. Production of this model was brief, lasting only between 1940 - 43 and they cost $943.

technical spec
technical spec

In 1942 for example, only 722 were built, with few surviving due to its versatile post war commercial use. Funds were raised through the sale of postage stamps, matches, etc.

B.A.A.C. stamps
B.A.A.C. stamps

Pictured here is Mrs Franklin D Roosevelt, the U.S president’s wife being presented with the first sheet of stamps, priced at one dollar, from William Ruxton the president of the British American ambulance corps. The stamps depict St George lancing a mythical Germanic dragon. The renowned patriotic artist, Mr Arthur Syke is also present. Syke tragically died in 1951 from a heart attack caused by the stress of being sited for anti-American activities by the McCarthy committees.


ruxton message
Ruxton Message
B.A.A.C Poster   Roosevelt, Ruxton & Syke
B.A.A.C Poster and Roosevelt, Ruxton and Syke

The inspiring personal message from Ruxton provides clarity of purpose for the corps and acts as a rallying cry for all democratically minded peoples.


V for victory stamp for war funds
V for victory stamp for war funds
advertising plate for the BAAC
advertising plate for the BAAC

4: POLISH HOSPITALS IN SCOTLAND

Two major hospitals were established at Dupplin castle, Perth and Taymouth Castle, Kenmore.

TAYMOUTH castle, featuring unknown ambulance type
TAYMOUTH castle, featuring unknown
ambulance type
Dupplin Castle
Dupplin Castle
ambulance parade of the 10th armoured cavalry brigade. Unknown station. Note the early model Chevy with detached headlamps, differing radiator grille and dual wheel axels
ambulance parade of the 10th
armoured cavalry brigade.

10th on the move
10th on the move
Polish gift from Canada
Polish gift from Canada
10th in close up
10th in close up
Dr Antoni Kominek & Austin K2 ambulance of the 1st Amd Div
Dr Antoni Kominek & Austin K2 ambulance of the 1st Amd Div

5:THE PADEREWSKI HOSPITAL the Polish school of medicine (Polish medical FACULTY) at the University of Edinburgh.

This school operated in Edinburgh from 1941 to 1949, originally to provide doctors for I Polish Army Corps.

At first it enabled medical students from the Polish Universities, which had all been closed by the German administration, to complete their courses and qualify. Instruction and examination were mostly in Polish. As well as the university's facilities, the Paderewski Hospital was set up on the Western General Hospital site. It was not feasible to move the school as a unit to Poland after the liberation. The school was both a faculty of the University of Edinburgh and a University authorised by the Polish government in exile (in London), and the Dean also had the powers of a Polish Rector Magnificus. Of 337 students enrolled, 227 graduated, 38 transferred to British Universities and 71 discontinued their studies. The school awarded both British degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery and a Polish Dyplom Lekarza on the same bilingual Latin-Polish certificate.

Nineteen progressed to Doctor of Medicine (MD)

polish ambulance arriving with casualties at the paderewski hospital received by civillian nurses and troops from the 1st armoured division
Polish ambulance arriving with casualties at the paderewski hospital received
by civilian nurses and troops from the 1st armoured division

6: WHY WERE THERE POLISH SOLDIERS IN BRITAIN?

In the late 1930’s, German expansionist aspirations saw them take control of German speaking lands to which they felt they had historical right, such as the Sudetenland of northern Czechoslovakia, the Rhineland in northern France and the annexation of Austria into the greater German Reich. When Britain and her allies dictated to Germany that any threat to the Silesia region of Poland and to polish sovereignty would lead to war, it was ignored by Hitler, Poland was invaded and overrun in September 1939, thus sparking the Second World War.

On 1st of September 1939, the German army attacked from West, North (Prussia) and South (Czechoslovakia), on 17th of September Russia entered the war attacking from East. Polish forces were completely overrun. To save part of the forces they crossed Romanian and Hungarian borders, where they were interned. The Polish Navy left to the UK in August 1939. Soon interned soldiers and well as officers went to France where Polish units were recreated; after France collapsed they went to Britain. At the same time soldiers tried to get to Britain through other routes: via Spain, Turkey etc. Poles that were captured by Russians were relocated to Siberia to “work camps”, while all officers were murdered by soviet security forces in Katyn, and blamed on the Germans.

Part of the soldiers from Russia joined the Polish Army in the West, leaving Russia through the Middle East. Remaining parts fought under Russian control. People of Polish descent also volunteered into Canadian and American armies. From certain areas Poles were forced to join German army, usually “motivated” by option of being sent to concentration camp, in many cases they surrender at first opportunity and after verification joined Polish Army.

After the war ended in 1945, many chose to live in Britain, Canada and the USA rather than be repatriated to the then Soviet controlled government in Poland. The Yalta agreement between the UK, Russia and the USA achieved agreement on how post war europe was to be shaped. Poland was taken by Stalin and was assigned as Russian controlled area, while over half of the territory was connected to Russia. Many Poles saw this as a betrayal by the allies and Polish soldiers had two options, return to Poland, where many of them were arrested,executed as traitors who fought for London government on exile, or to stay on the West. Some of them settled in the UK, others in Holland or even emigrated to Australia and Canada.

Poles waitied a generation to get their independence, and it was not until 1989 where first free elections were completed. Finally the Russian army left Poland in early 90’s.

7:1ST MAC LEGACY

When the unit finally left Linlithgow, They erected a shrine at Laetare on the 15th August 1944, as a testament to its service in Scotland and this still stands in its original position today.

A poignant time indeed for the Poles,….as the 1st Armoured Division it had supported with ambulance needs when training in Lanark, was engaged in bitter fighting on Mt Ormel in the centre of the Falaise gap in Normandy, which by the 21st August, resulted in the rout of the German Army and a conclusive victory for the allies with an end to the battle of Normandy which had raged for almost three months

Laetare in the 1950’s
Laetare in the 1950’s
close up of named soldier sculptors
close up of named soldier sculptors
close up of inscriptions
Close up of inscriptions

A dedication service was held to present the shrine. The following has been edited from the West Lothian Courier dated Sept 8th1944: “Rev Fr.McGovern expressed to the men and women of the medical ambulance unit, the delight and heartfelt gratitude of the congregation for the generous token presented to the parish in memory of their stay in the district and he proceeded to say these members of the polish army had done so at a time when the people of Poland were going through the most gruelling experience.

Today they were encompassed on all sides by enemies. The poor, helpless voices of women and children were ringing out from Warsaw (The Warsaw uprising started on 1st August) to the people of Christendom to come to their assistance. Their country had been torn to pieces by ravenous wolves. Poland came to this war to defend the rights of men and freedom. Right from the start Poland was faced with an almost insuperable enemy. To-day that enemy was being overthrown, the dawn was at hand. It might happen (and it did) that the mighty armies from the east might attempt to break and crush the tremendous unity of Poland but he was Convinced that Poland would rise again.”

8:THE MYSTERY FOLLOWING D-DAY


FANY accounts refer to the formation in London, of a no1 Motor Ambulance Convoy in July 1944, specifically siting twenty three F.A.N.Y. drivers and an equal amount of Red Cross drivers to be sent to France in support of the Normandy invasion. Was this 1MAC being re-formed for embarkation with the Polish soldiers left behind to be re-assigned or just a co-incidential unit title? We know the Poles left linlithgow in August 44 but the records are unclear and further reserach will be necissary. The account of 1st MAC'S Normandy service follows and it has no reference to Polish troops: On the 3rd September 1944 the 1st Motor Ambulance Convoy moved to embarkation positions on the South coast and within days they were on an LST (Landing Ship Transport) bound for French port. That port was Arromanches, part of Gold beach British sector and they rolled off onto 3/4 mile of pre-fabricated Mulberry Harbour!


Once the convoy were formed up on shore, they were escorted to an Apple orchard and attached to an R.A.S.C. Ambulance Company and H.Q. Duties in the first few weeks in Normandy included ferrying wounded from trains to Hospital ships docked in Arromanches, air evacuation and general hospital duties. Subsequently in November the unit was orderd north to Amiens, then three days prior to christmas pushed further ahead to a posting in the boarding school section of the Convent Beryaymont in central Brussels, amidst the threat of the recent German counter attack that became known as the Battle of the Bulge, which had started on the 16th December. After the failed German offensive in the Ardennes, 1MAC were given extra ambulances, undertook necessary vehicle maintenence duties and continued work ferrying casualties. FANY were now in familiar land, having already served with distinction in Belgium during the 1914 - 1918 Great War. It was now January 1945. On to Germany? Was this the 1st MAC from Linlithgow, devoid of its Polish soldiers? The answer may lie in the archives of the Sikorski Institute in London and what this needs is a volunteer reseracher to find out!

64 years later…..

9:2008 1 MAC RE-BORN!


truck un-restored, as found
truck un-restored, as found

In 2008 a group of local enthusiasts have re-created the sight of Linlithgow’s wartime polish soldiers and F.A.N.Y. drivers, by sourcing and procuring one of the last surviving very rare 1942 1½ ton Chevrolet trucks from the U.S.A. and restoring it to ambulance specification with authentically WW2 uniformed male and female personnel.

Research has indicated this may be the only truck of its type in the UK.

The vehicle was bought from Mr Ron Brazell a collector of rare vintage trucks and shipped round the world from California to Linlithgow.

Ron was so taken with the project, that he donated the sum of $943, the exact cost of the vehicle in W.W.2. ! As Ron put it:

“It seems to me that so many of the problems we all face today, are not much different from the issues that mankind had to deal with in the past. It seems that we either just don't want to, or can't remember those struggles. Life is so easy today compared to the lives of our not-so-distant predecessors that we tend to forget the hardships and difficulties they faced. So I'm all in support of keeping alive these memories of the past. In that light I'd like to donate $943 to your group and your efforts”.

A generous gesture indeed, recounting that same wartime spirit. The 1st MAC “living history” group make new members very welcome and the group’s aspiration for this hobby is to recreate the ww2 visual identity to the rich historical heritage of Linlithgow and to serve local charitable causes. The group welcome any reminisces or information to enhance the historical portrayal and if you wish to join and participate, help will be given with uniform advice and sourcing.

It is a rewarding hobby, balancing fun and historical interest, with respect for the memory of all those who fought for the freedom we have today.

The defiance shown by Britain,
The women volunteers drivers,
The men exiled from Poland,
The material provided by the U.S.A.
Was the synergy that was part of Linlithgow’s wartime story.

That story is now being re-told to a new generation so that we never forget the past and the sacrifices made by both soldier and civilian.



Latest Blog Posts

Ambulance and food for the campaign of the ruling

On the run to the polls, it seems to have found Ricardo Colombi return to the campaign: a truck with mercederías arrived Sunday in Curuzú Cuatiá, where his private secretary distribute food in order to reach the Administration.Opponents of the UCR of Mercedes and Curuzú tried to know origin and destination of the cargo, but the vehicle continued road
A pity that is not permanent or points to end hunger, but proselytizing strategy of radicalism inside has axis hunger, are no doubts. A food loads were detected vigil municipal and provincial officials in Santo Tomé, Paso de los Libres, Alvear, Mercedes and Ituzaingó, between Sunday and yesterday was joined by two other trucks with food Corner and Curuzú Cuatiá.
On Sunday, as the complaint of food diversion based in Mercedes on Saturday candidate for mayor of Solidarity Change, Victor Cemborain not disturbed or an out of the police precinct, between 2 and 3 pm in Curuzú Cuatiá one portentous vehicle full of nonperishable food are parked in a delegation of the Rural Police and Islands.
“But not in stores nor waking, but because nothing else parked there and he lost track , ” he said in statements to El Litoral the curuzucuateño journalist Pedro Silva, owner of the FM Horizonte.
But the first stop on the itinerary of the truck was just Mercedes, where about 500 residents settled around the shed that the leader of the UCR “Queta” Nunez has at the intersection of the streets FL Beltran and Bolivar, the Itati neighborhood, as magnetized to the public and a few opposition leaders phenomenal unloading of goods, just a vehicle owned by Bernardo “Gringo” Rodriguez, private secretary to the governor, Ricardo Colombi and mayoral candidate by the UCR in Curuzú.
And just to his campaign were directed goods, because after two stops, among which was the noticed found by the Deputy Commissioner Anibal Dominguez, the trailer and the truck arrived at the commune led by gubernatorial candidate Carlos Rubin (PJ).
It was not any sign that the canvas trailer bearing the name of your company trasnportes, “Curinga” and that in the front passenger seat in the vehicle cabin has been found stuffed a shirt with the slogan of Fresh Air with the phrase: “Mayor Jose Molina.”
Clues were not lacking: the current mercedeño village head, Federico Moulia (UCR), he made threats against observers load, which claimed remitos or transported food bills, Food cost software, which however were not requested by the police force.
One of the managers divert attention from opponents, including the deputy found by Panu Graciela Catalani, was the legal advisor to the mercedeña Municipality, Adrian Casarrubias, who is also supervisor of the Civil Society Cruz Gil and seized the Provincial Department of Energy Corrientes (PCSD). Without showing documentation supporting the origin of the goods, the official had no setbacks to say that it had carried proselytizing destination.
The mechanics of the procedure was certainly similar to that detected between Friday night and Saturday morning, also in Mercedes and had suspicions of a broad swath of opposition leaders, headed by the applicant to the Municipality of Paiubre by Solidarity change, Victor Cemborain.
The supermarket entrepreneur, understood in the transport, loading and unloading mercederías, reported to the police the dubious origin and refusal to show remitos carriers or invoices. Meanwhile definitions, as in Santo Tomé, Paso de los Libres, Alvear, Ituzaingó and await Corner.

Carancho, including traffic accidents and ambulances

Month and a half that arrived this Argentina film to the Spanish billboard, and a couple of weeks that was pending discuss it as it deserves ago.

Carancho tells the story of Sosa (Ricardo Darin), a lawyer who has lost his license and that to survive He works in a business that is responsible for causing car accidents for those responsible for the policy and to defraud insurers. Lujan (Martina Gusman) is a doctor of a hospital located somewhere in Buenos Aires. Sosa and Luján one day be found …

In Argentina over 8,000 people die each year in traffic accidents, and more than 120,000 injured. Around this unfortunately there is a huge business with medical and legal expenses, compensation, … A “Carancho” is an attorney who lives by these shady business.

This film by Pablo Trapero is a strong denunciation of the unfortunate reality that there are around traffic accidents. With a powerful script and a shocking story, this film will represent Argentina in the next Oscars (or at least one of the 65 pre – selected, we’ll see if it comes to the ceremony). The film works well as a thriller, with several sequences very well planned and realistic action mounted. And there is also a love story in the background, but it’s less a story so full of realism like this. This film is available to watch here movie2k.

The two protagonists act exceptionally. Ricardo Darin we had already demonstrated many times their worth as an actor, but Martina Gusman did not know her and I must say that fits perfectly in character, difficult to interpret, it must show all the stress of overwork and little sleep with an addiction to painkillers suffering to heal pain and help keep up with work.

But despite all this, and perhaps because of its excessive hardness in the story, the film managed not to become passionate as made, for example, the splendid “the secret in their eyes” , which had the same lead actor; but certainly, it is a sign that the Argentine cinema must be taken into account. I give it a seven.

Before the ambulance arrives

First let’s look at what the CPR. CPR is CPR. CPR involves chest compressions at least five inches deep and at a speed of at least 100 per minute in an effort to create artificial blood circulation pump by hand through the heart. Only CPR is unlikely to revive the heart. main purpose is CPR to restore partial flow of oxygenated blood to the brain and heart.

A CPR mask is used to be able to avoid coming into contact with the victim. In other words, a CPR mask is a barrier between the victim and the rescuer as well. These masks are officially called barrier devices. A pocket mask or perhaps a pocket mask CPR is really a legacy used to transport safely rescue breaths during cardiac or respiratory arrest 1. The main function of this device would keep the rescuer safe from infectious diseases, bacteria, and the transfer of blood and other body fluids of the patient or vice versa. There must be a CPR mask in each emergency kit.

 

The pocket mask is really a small device, part of a CPR dummy that can be used in you personally. Many masks have inlet tube lowered oxygen, enabling the administration of 50 to 60% oxygen. Oxygen administered to the patient in the middle of an emergency or medical personnel in the workplace. The emergency responder exhale through the filter valve in one direction.

The most popular and oldest CPR mask is available in the market is really a Microshield CPR. It is s small, functional and economical. This type of mask is generally used to train individuals in first aid classes.
Another type of mask is one that comes with a built in oxygen tube. The oxygen tube provided inside the mask helps transmit oxygen from the atmosphere and deliver it to the patient. This type of mask is extremely useful because it reduces the pressure when the rescuer provide artificial respiration for the patient.

A pocket mask is not as effective as a bag valve mask. A pocket mask has advantages when only one rescuer is available. Unlike mask bag valve mask, CPR can be used by ordinary people.A valve mask bag, abbreviated BVM and sometimes recognized as the owner Ambu bag is actually a portable device used to provide positive pressure ventilation to a patient who is not breathing or is breathing adequately. The device is actually a normal part of a resuscitation team of trained experts, such as an ambulance crew. That is why it is much better to use CPR mask.

Remember that you can find in each kit disaster and that’s how you can use a CPR mask:

– Put your other thumb and index finger in the pocket on the chin of the victim, creating a seal.
– Tilt the head back to open the airway using the fingers of the second hand to provide a chin lift.
– blow gently toward the entrance until you see the chest rise. Remember that each breath should take about 1 second.
– Remove your mouth and allow the victim to exhale.
– Move immediately to 30 chest compressions.

Let’s see what the mask with 1 – way valve is and how it can be used. It is probably the most effective barrier device that prevents patients exhaled air inhaled by becoming El Salvador.
– The mask is full flat for you. Make sure the white filter fits into position (if equipped).
– Push the dome of the mask.
– Press the valve in one direction in position at the top of the mask.
– Kneel on the side of the patient ‘s head, place the mask on your face pocket with the base of the mask is between the chin of the victim and the lower lip.
– If the mask is equipped with a strap, attach it by placing the strap behind the head of the victim. Now there is no need to create a seal. Be quick to remove it .
– Gently place the closest to the head of the victim hand on the forehead by a form of ‘C’ with the thumb and index finger in the pocket mask making a seal.

Do not forget the CPAP Masks are reusable, but must be thoroughly cleaned after use. 1-way valves and the white filter must be disposed after use on a patient.

15 movie cars: the Citroen 2CV Sister Aston Martin James Bond

Throughout history there have been cars with a leading role in unforgettable movies.

Throughout history there have been films where the actor or actress has had to master share the limelight with the car he used. In fact, sometimes the car has been the center of history in the background leaving the actors. And there are movie cars that need no introduction, but despite having seen countless times on the big screen, how do we identify them ?

Cars movie

ASTON MARTIN DB 5. SAGA 007

The most famous secret agent has always had the latest technology to prosecute those who wanted to end against Her Majesty the Queen of England and destroy the world. Only cars that has led have overshadowed the women who coprotagonizaban his films and, of all people , the highlight was the Martin DB5 Aston you used in ‘Goldfinger ‘, ‘ Thunderball ‘, ‘ GoldenEye ‘, ‘ Tomorrow never dies ‘, ‘Casino Royale ‘ and ‘ Skyfall ‘. Had all kinds of gadgets to catch the bad guys, but if we liked was its engine four – liter six – cylinder attached to a gearbox four – speed yielding 282 hp with a top speed of 230 km / h. Elegance car was made, a tuxedo itself.

Cars movie

CADILLAC MILLER-METEOR. GHOSTBUSTERS

When four people are organized to hunt ectoplasms particular level and put the company headquarters in an old firehouse, they can not move around New York in a conventional car, need one special. Thus, the Ghostbusters opted for an ambulance Cadillac Miller-Meteor of 1959 . It is one of the great representatives of large American cars that, when an ambulance was bigger even than one might imagine. This model rode a V8 engine 325 hp and three – speed automatic transmission.

Cars movie

FORD MUSTANG. BULLIT

Steve McQueen pure. It has one of the scenes of persecution of cars most acclaimed history when a Ford Mustang chasing a Dodge Charger R / T through the streets of San Francisco.

Steve good, very fond of the world of the engine and the wheels, failed to keep his protege away from Chicago Crime Syndicate witness although he had a Ford Mustang Fastback 1967 to pursue them . The model had an engine V8 6.3 of 320 hp associated with an automatic gearbox of three speeds. Despite the good handling McQueen with the steering wheel to the stunts he called his friend Hill Hickman, stunt pilot.If not, look at the position of the mirrors of the car during the persecutions, they were down, so that the face of the real driver can not see through some reflection from behind.

Another detail to consider in the absence of the traditional logoMustang on the front and rear. The reason is the refusal of Ford Motor Company to support the film with both vehicles and economically.Steve, who was a producer of the film, had decided which car woulduse, but did not want to give more publicity to the brand, so he removed his distinctive manufacturer and model.

Cars movie

MINI. ITALIAN JOB

Both the original and the 1969 remake of 2004 show how you can useMinis , small utility vehicles, to get one of the biggest robberies in history. The first focuses on the city of Turin, Italy, and the remake in Los Angeles. In both cases the low boot is more than enough to fill it withgold bullion . The Mini Morris coprotagonizaba the original film had a one – liter engine and 40 hp , which gave it to achieve a top speed of 140 km / h. It may seem small as a whole, but is more than enough to escape the mob and the police , both through the streets of Turin as their pipes and transalpine and Swiss roads.

Cars movie

VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE. HERBIE

Here the protagonist of the story is a Volkswagen Beetle with feelingsand able to change some elements of the front as if it were a face, and that they are metallic and rigid. The character had previously participated in several movies and Disney until studies were decided to give his own.

He was perhaps the first of the autonomous vehicles in history and had artificial intelligence, even came to love. He gave several sequels and a remake, and gathered all the connotations of the movement ‘Flower Power’ of which enjoyed the beetle in the sixties. He had an engine 1.2 liters and 30 hp , more than enough to win races against sports cars of the time, as is well demonstrated in the xmovies8 site.

Cars movie

DeLorean DMC-12. RETURN TO THE FUTURE

So that the creators of the ‘Back to the Future’ saga changed their minds at the last moment. In the initial plans of the film it was thought that Marty McFly would walk through history taking and for the back of a refrigerator, but finally decided on a DeLorean DMC-12 , giving rise to one of the most recognizable models panorama film. Yes, despite the success of the series, the brand and the model did not have much luck . The DMC-12 was manufactured in 1981 and 1982, when it ceased production because the company went bankrupt following the arrest for drug trafficking John DeLorean, owner of the firm. After he demonstrated that the charges were false, but it was too late to save the DeLorean.

Designed by the prestigious Giugiaro , the car has a PRV six – cylinder engine in V with a displacement of 2.8 liters, yielding 130 hp and could be attached to a manual gearbox or a three – speed automatic five .They built a total of 8,500 units , of which more than half are still seen today on the roads of the United States.

Cars movie

FORD MUSTANG FASTABACK ’67. 60 SECONDS

Eleanor , as well be called this Mustang Fastback Ford in the 2000 movie starring Nicolas Cage and Angelina Jolie, is one of the most deceptive celluloid models . He is acclaimed for motor racing fans but the truth is that never marketed as such. Eleanor is actually a creation of the company in collaboration with Unique Performance Chip Foose, who on the basis of a Mustang Fastback 67 coupled the Shelby GT 500 finish as well as an important paraphernalia that had a more aggressive image. That is, neither Ford nor Carroll Shelby never traded a car with such aesthetic. The reason was that had created very few units Shelby GT500 at the time, were expensive to get and did not want to destroy them in a film where the car would suffer. So they preferred to put a  body kit to give him similar to the originals.

Of course, once the film was released and the model was so popular , Unique Performance created a limited series of Eleanor for those willing to scratch well pocket. As in the case of Bullit, the original engine was a 6.3 – liter V8 and 320 hp, but UP increased its power beyond the 500 hp.

Cars movie

FORD DELUXE. GREASE

Grease was a film released in 1978 that met all American stereotypes but getting you liked thanks to the love story of two antagonistic protagonists. As a child, although vital for the action of the film, wefind an F ord Deluxe 48 showing the relationships between the protagonists, helps beat the ‘baddies’ thanks to a career in the channel of Los Angeles, despite the black arts and the damage it receives, and returns to be repaired to become the modern float – tale ending with Travolta and Newton-John was fired, this time with some changes that make it unrecognizable. He had an engine V8 3.9 liters and 100 hppower.

Cars movie

CHECKER CAB. TAXI DRIVER

The cab had a secondary role, but stood as the main scenario of a large number of scenes in a movie that cost a lot to start shooting, had low budget despite its large cast of actors and direction, and that only with time and criticism, came to soar as one of the best films of cinema history.

The model itself was a Checker Cab belonging to the Checker company, which for several decades was in charge of making taxis several US cities. He is riding a six – cylinder engine, 4.1 liters and 91 hp.The company continued to produce taxis until 1982 , when he left this branch of its business. Still she maintained a small production of parts and spares, linked to General Motors, until 2009 when it went bankrupt.

Cars movie

DODGE CHARGER. FAST AND FURIOUS

Are many and very different coat vehicles listed in the saga Fast and Furious , however stands out : the Dodge Charger that Toretto kept in the garage of his home unfinished repair and that had belonged to his father, who would he had introduced into the world of illegal racing.

Originally, this Dodge Charger 1970, which could mount a wide range of powertrains, had a 6.3 – liter V8 and 340 hp and top of the range.However, in the film, Toretto says that develops more than 900 hp , not in vain air intakes protrude above the hood and says it has the speed record in the quarter mile , since it takes those 402 meters only9 seconds .

Cars movie

PARAGON PANTHER. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang

Is the film adaptation cinema adventure book of the same name by Ian Fleming, creator, among others, the character of Agent 007. This time it is a children ‘s movie in which a mad inventor gets manufacture a car that lets you travel imaginary worlds flying through the air and floating on the sea. The model chosen is a Paragon Panther 1920 , a race car after passing through the hands of the protagonist can transport, with his love, his father and his children, land of pirates and castles.

Cars movie

FORD THUNDERBIRD. THELMA & LOUISE

Road movie in which two very different but equally nondescript life women decide to take a trip together to put aside, if only for a few days, their sad lives. However, not everything goes as planned. The vehicle that will take them on the roads of the United States and even deep to escape from the police is a Ford Thunderbird 66 . It is a convertible with a canvas roof powered by a V8 of 6.4 liters and 315 hp .

Cars movie

PLYMOUTH FURY. CHRISTINE

A any vehicle manufactured in Detroit, the city that hosts the headquarters of the three major auto companies in the US, is to have something special inside. When Arnnie find what half demolished no doubt buy it and fix it , but it soon becomes possessed by the car and both are dedicated to cause terror in the city.

The Plymouth Fury 58 had a 290 hp V8 engine. One of the curiosities of this model is that it belongs to one of the last series of this version of the Fury during recording and wrecked more than a dozen cars, which ended up angering collectors.

VOLVO 850 AIRBAG

Because the ‘conceto’ is the ‘conceto’. One of the surprise of our country and how the word of mouth can run movies. It was a film content budget showing how some friends who were participating in abachelor party is desmadraban a little more and meddled in the delivery of a drug shipment, after the misfortune of losing the engagement ring groom in a somewhat compromised site.

The model became protagonist of some of the scenes, persecutions and some of the most hilarious moments was a Volvo 850 , which had a 2.3 liter engine and 228 hp.

What many people do not know is that at the end of the film, the car was returned to the dealership in the northern area of Madrid where they had collected. Here he was cleaned, repaired (even had bullet holes in the plate) and sold as second – hand vehicle to an individual.The car was working as an anonymous vehicle for a long time.

Cars movie

CITROËN 2 CV. SOR CITROËN

With the Church we have encountered. One of the usual films Film Barrio (but do not get tired of seeing) mixes religion and automotive. It is the case of a nun played by Gracita Morales , all love and all tenderness, who can not drive, it costs a thousand and one dislikes passed my driving test, once you have it in your pocket, is dedicated tosow chaos in the Madrid of the 60s with a 2CV . However, his kindness makes you love her though none wanted encontrárnosla on the road.Despite what its name suggests, the car had a 425 cc engine. yielding 13.5 CV.

We must not forget that despite the kind of film that was, censorship also acted and cut a scene where the sisters had dinner soup as a them read the highway code, instead of the sacred scriptures, as was done at that time. Download article convert the article with hush hush pdf




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Acknowledgemets: Joseph Katautskas Smith, Robert Ostrycharz, Dr. Wojciech Piotrowicz, Gilles Lapers, .Martyn Cox